Animal-to-animal transmission or after handling animals:

  • Diseased poultry or poultry incubating disease;
  • Animal/bird carcasses;
  • Animals other than poultry (pets, rodents, insects, wild birds and other wildlife);

Tools, equipment and personal protective equipment or clothing:

  • Clothing and shoes of visitors and employees moving from farm-to-farm, between animal groups or production areas on-farm;
  • Shared and unsanitised equipment such as rakes, brooms, cell phones and more.
  • Contaminated feed, water, bedding and soil;
  • On contaminated farm equipment and vehicles


  • In airborne particles and dust blown by the wind and exhaust fans.
  • pests such as pigeons, rats, or other insects.

Best practice states that staff/visitors should practice biosecurity safety before entering the barn or entryway. This includes:

  • disinfecting hands
  • donning masks
  • fresh boot covers
  • clean coveralls
  • hand washing facilities
  • hand sanitizer for entering and exiting
  • knowledge of proper "donning and doffing"
  • a plan for when you need the washroom or refreshment

Note: Hand sanitizer has an expiration date and must contain at least 60% alcohol to be effective.