Diseases in Poultry Can be Spread Directly or Indirectly Through:

 Animal-to-animal transmission or after handling animals:

  • Diseased poultry or poultry incubating disease;
  • Animal/bird carcasses;
  • Animals other than poultry (pets, rodents, insects, wild birds and other wildlife);

Tools, equipment and personal protective equipment or clothing:

  • Clothing and shoes of visitors and employees moving from farm-to-farm, between animal groups or production areas on-farm;
  • Shared and unsanitised equipment such as rakes, brooms, cell phones and more.
  • Contaminated feed, water, bedding and soil;
  • On contaminated farm equipment and vehicles


  • In airborne particles and dust blown by the wind and exhaust fans.
  • pests such as pigeons, rats, or other insects.

Best practice states that staff/visitors should practice biosecurity safety before entering the barn or entryway. This includes:

  • disinfecting hands
  • donning masks
  • fresh boot covers
  • clean coveralls
  • hand washing facilities
  • hand sanitizer for entering and exiting
  • knowledge of proper "donning and doffing"
  • a plan for when you need the washroom or refreshment

Note: Hand sanitizer has an expiration date and must contain at least 60% alcohol to be effective.

Keep a visitor logbook at each barn to record the name and date of visitors and service vehicles to better track the flow of people and equipment on your farm. This can be digital or paper-based. A template for a visitor sign-in page is provided in My Farm forms.

Staff working in several barns on same site must change footwear, health and safety equipment, and wash hands when entering and leaving each building.

Vehicles and farm equipment can spread disease from farm to farm through contaminated material on their tires, fenders and undercarriages. Proper sanitation of equipment between farms can reduce the spread of disease.

Ensure laneways and roadways used by visitors, delivery and service vehicles are kept free of manure and soil. Locate a drop box away from the barn entrance for feed delivery slips, courier deliveries, bills and receipts.

Set aside a specific parking area for staff and visitors and post signage to clearly indicate where vehicles should be parked. Ensure the area is well-drained, graveled, free of manure, and a minimum of 15 feet from the barn.

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To learn more, Poultry Industry Council has a variety of information on the proper use and effectiveness of Biosecurity
Measures and Health and Safety Equipment on their website.

Poultry Industry Council has also a variety of information on how to properly use health and safety equipment, how to sanitize boots and hands, and properly enter and exit barns.